Welcome back to another enlightening installment of TODA LEARN! Today, we delve deep into the realm of artificial leather, shedding light on the remarkably versatile PVC leather. Our journey will take us through its intricate production process, its wide-ranging applications across industries, and a comprehensive comparison with two other popular artificial leather options: PU leather and microfiber.

PVC Leather: A Closer Look

PVC leather, short for polyvinyl chloride leather, stands as a remarkable creation in the world of synthetic alternatives. By layering PVC onto a fabric base (discover our world of backing/cushioning of artificial leather), PVC leather embodies the essence of genuine leather at a fraction of the cost. Its innovative production techniques seamlessly mimic the texture and appearance of real leather, making it a sought-after choice across various sectors.

Processes in PVC Leather Production

When it comes to versatile and cost-effective synthetic leather, PVC leather stands as a remarkable choice. The journey of transforming raw materials into exquisite PVC leather involves a series of meticulous processes that result in a material resembling genuine leather in appearance and texture. In this blog post, we delve into the first three crucial steps of PVC leather production: calendering, vacuum, and coating processes.

  • Calendering Process: Crafting the Foundation

At the heart of PVC leather production lies the calendering process, a technique that forms the very foundation of the material. This initial step involves creating a composite by layering PVC paste onto a fabric base, often composed of polyester. These layers are expertly combined using controlled heat and high-pressure steel rollers. The result is a harmonious marriage of fabric and PVC, with consistent thickness and a distinct textured surface (embossing). The calendering process not only imparts visual and tactile characteristics but also ensures uniformity and resilience, however, the surface of the leather using this method is rougher than the other methods.

Leather without pollution: TPU calendered material brings new momentum to  the synthetic leather industry - Journal articles - News & Events - Coating  P. Materials Co., Ltd.

Source: Coating P. Materials Co., Ltd. (CPMC)

When the calendaring process of fabric is carried out, the fabric passes between many rollers nips. The fabric surface is compressed under controlled conditions of time, temperature and pressure. The round shape of the yarn gets elliptical due to compressing action between rollers nips. You can see the below picture:


  • Vacuum Process: Sculpting Aesthetic and Flexibility

Venturing further into the production journey, we encounter the vacuum process, a pivotal step that lends PVC leather its intricate patterns and designs. The calendered material is placed atop a textured mold, and a vacuum is applied, causing the PVC to adhere to the mold's contours. This technique generates an array of captivating patterns, from classic grains to contemporary motifs, adding an extra layer of aesthetics to the material. Beyond visual appeal, the vacuum process enhances the material's flexibility, ensuring it can seamlessly conform to various shapes and structures, making it ideal for a wide range of applications.


Vacuum embossing roller and vacuum embossing machine, Source:

  • Coating Release Paper Process: Crafting Visually Appealing and High-Quality

A patterned paper is temporarily applied onto an adhesive-coated PVC material. This composite is then passed through embossing rollers, where heat and pressure transfer the pattern from the paper onto the PVC, creating desired textures and designs. After cooling and setting, the patterned paper is carefully removed, leaving behind the embossed design on the PVC. This technique allows manufacturers to achieve intricate textures and patterns, enhancing the material's aesthetic appeal and replicating the look of natural materials. The PVC material undergoes further finishing processes before becoming ready for various applications, making this process a pivotal step in crafting visually appealing and high-quality PVC leather.

Source: Colence

Release Paper, Source:

Comparison Chart




Coating Release Paper









Embossing patterns


Smooth Embossing

Smooth Embossing

Applications Beyond Imagination: From Fashion to Furnishings

PVC leather finds its place across a spectrum of industries, seamlessly integrating into fashion, automotive design, upholstery, and accessories. Its affordability and resilience make it an ideal candidate for crafting clothing, bags, footwear, and upholstery, spanning residential and commercial spaces alike. In the realm of automotive interiors, PVC leather's durability and resistance to wear are a boon. Moreover, its inherent waterproof nature positions it as an optimal choice for outdoor furniture and marine upholstery.